Category Archives: fiber bundle

basic construction of spaces

splitting into handlebodies


spleeti

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double coset counting formula


the double coset counting formula is a relation inter double cosets HaK, where a\in G and H,K subgroups in G. This is:

\#(HaK)=\frac{|H||K|}{|H\cap aKa^{-1}|}

and

\#(G/K)=\sum_a[H;H\cap aKa^{-1}]

The proof is easy.

One is to be bounded to the study of the natural map H\times K\stackrel{\phi_a}\to HaK. And it uses the second abstraction lemma.

The formula allows you to see the kinds of subgroups of arbitrary H versus K a p-SS of G, p-SS for the set of the p– Sylow subgroups.

Or, you can see that through the action H\times G/K\to G/K via h\cdot aK=haK you can get:

  • {\rm Orb}_H(aK)=\{haK\} which comply the equi-partition
  • HaK=aK\sqcup haK\sqcup...\sqcup h_taK, so \#(HaK)=m|K|, for some m\in \mathbb{N}
  • {\rm St}_H(aK)=H\cap aKa^{-1}

then you can deduce:

|G|=\sum_a\frac{|H||K|}{|H\cap aKa^{-1}|}

Now, let us use those ideas to prove the next statement:

Let G be a finite group, with cardinal |G|=q_1^{n_1}q_2^{n_2}\cdots q_t^{n_t}, where each q_i are primes with q_1<q_2<...<q_t and n_i positive integers.

Let H be a subgroup of |G| of index [G:H]=q_1.

Then, H is normal.

Proof:

By employing K=H in the double coset partition, one get the decomposition:

G=HeH\sqcup Ha_1H\sqcup...\sqcup Ha_tH

So by the double coset counting formula you arrive to:

|G/H|=1+[H:H\cap a_1Ha_1^{-1}]+\cdots+[H:H\cap a_tHa_t^{-1}]

i.e.

q_1=1+\frac{|H|}{|H\cap a_1Ha_1^{-1}|}+\cdots+\frac{|H|}{|H\cap a_tHa_t^{-1}|}

From this, we get \frac{|H|}{|H\cap a_iHa_i^{-1}|}<q_1.

But |G|=q_1|H| as well |H|=|H\cap a_iHa_i^{-1}|[H:H\cap a_iHa_i^{-1}] so

|G|=q_1|H\cap a_iHa_i^{-1}|[H:H\cap a_iHa_i^{-1}], i.e.

[H:H\cap a_iHa_i^{-1}] divides |G|

Then [H:H\cap a_iHa_i^{-1}]=1. So |H|=|H\cap a_iHa_i^{-1}| for each a_i.

This implies H=H\cap a_iHa_i^{-1} and so H=a_iHa_i^{-1} for all the posible a_i, hence, H is normal.

QED.

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Filed under algebra, categoría, category theory, fiber bundle, group theory, math, math analysis, mathematics, maths, what is math, what is mathematics

Levi-Civita tensor


to see

\varepsilon^i\wedge\varepsilon^j\wedge\varepsilon^k\wedge\varepsilon^l(e_s,e_t,e_u,e_v)={\varepsilon^{ijkl}}_{stuv}

since we are requiring “canonical” duality, i.e.  covectors, \varepsilon^k:V\to R, do

\varepsilon^k(e_l)={\delta^k}_l.

one uses

\varepsilon^i\!\wedge\!\varepsilon^j\!\wedge\!\varepsilon^k\!\wedge\!\varepsilon^l\!=\!\!\sum_{\sigma\in S_4}\!(\!-1\!)^{\sigma}\!\varepsilon^{\sigma(i)}\!\otimes\!\varepsilon^{\sigma(j)}\!\otimes\!\varepsilon^{\sigma(k)}\!\otimes\!\varepsilon^{\sigma(l)}

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Filed under differential geometry, fiber bundle, geometry, multilinear algebra

situation at some 3D-space


situation at some 3D-space

that is, a curve C,…

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multilinear algebra 1, a synoptic view


what is math? let us discuss:

Baby Abstract Multilinear Algebra
Baby Multilinear Algebra  of Inner Product Spaces
Calculus in \mathbb{R}^n
Algebraic Differential Geometry
  • Parameterizations: curves and surfaces
  • Tangent vectors, tangent space, tangent bundle
  • Curves in \mathbb{R}^2 and \mathbb{R}^3 and on surfaces in \mathbb{R}^3
  • Surfaces in \mathbb{R}^3
    1. all classical surfaces rendered
    2. tangent space change of basis
    3. vector fields and tensor fields
    4. Christoffel’s symbols (connection coefficients)
    5. Curvatures (Gaussian, Mean, Principals, Normal and Geodesic)
  • Vector Fields, Covector Fields, Tensor Fields
  • Integration: Gauss-Bonnet, Stokes
Baby Manifolds (topological, differential, analytic, anti-analytic, aritmetic,…)
Examples: Lie groups and Fiber bundles

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Filed under algebra, calculus on manifolds, categoría, differential equations, differential geometry, fiber bundle, geometry, math analysis, maths, multilinear algebra, topology, what is math

local math brochures


Follow the links to get acquainted with the contents what we will work this semester.

They are

Also, let me feedback you mentioning the topics which can be get into it to work on thesis (B.Sc. or M.Sc.) or else

  • differential geometry
  • differential topology
  • low dimensional topology
  • algebra  and analysis
  • sum of reciprocal inverses integers problem

These are fun  really!

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Filed under 3-manifolds, algebra, fiber bundle, geometry, latex, low dimensional topology, math, mathematics, multilinear algebra, sum of reciprocals, what is math

a theorem about 3-manifolds and circle-foliations


si M es una tres-variedad cerrada y foliada por uno-esferas sobre un orbifold que tiene más de dos curvo-reflectores, y pero que M no admite al tres-toro como cubriente entonces el SW-género de M es mayor que uno

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